Paths to the Middle East: Ten Scholars Look Back

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Jews and Palestinians both started to develop a national consciousness and mobilized to achieve national goals. This and next items are extensively referenced, and sympathetically undertaken. The period between 1990 and the end of the long war in Iraq marks only the latest stage of American militarism in the Gulf. It is credited with the invention of the bow and arrow, which greatly increased effectiveness in hunting. The median oil price for that period is $32.50 per barrel.

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Founding Fathers of Israel

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The tenured professor of liberal education and globalization studies swiftly responded with a video posted to YouTube. The "North-Eastern" Iranian languages, Sarmatian and Scythian (which are poorly attested), ended up in the far North-West, north of the Caspian Sea and in the Ukraine, respectively. William Lambers is an author and historian who partnered with the World Food Programme on the book “Ending World Hunger: School Lunches for Kids Around the World” (2009).

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Arabists: The Romance of an American Elite

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The jihad is a global conception that divides the peoples of the world into two irreconcilable camps: that of the dar al-Harb, the �Territory of War,� which covers those regions controlled by the infidels; and the dar al-Islam, �the Territory of Islam,� the Muslim homeland where Islamic law reigns. In 1924, in alliance with conservative religious forces known as the Ikhwan, Abdul Aziz invaded Mecca and seized the territory in Arabia known as the Hejaz. Included is a unique interview in Kabul’s Polecharki jail with the infamous American prisoner Jack Idema – an ex Marine Special Forces soldier who turned rouge.

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British Pro-Consuls in Egypt, 1914-1929: The Challenge of

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The conflict reached its highest point in January and February of 1991 between Iraq and an international combination of forces led by the United States. S. puts forces on alert, and moves them into the region. The country has a small population of slightly under 280,000, and the national language, Icelandic, is virtually unknown anywhere outside the country. North American gas producers are at a cost disadvantage compared to producers from established LNG exporters such as Qatar.

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Backstabbing for Beginners: My Crash Course in International

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Have a gander at this clip of Beck on TheBlaze TV on Thursday, where claims that the "game for who is going to control the Middle East" has begun, and apparently it's "the beginning of a very long war in the Middle East" that's "all about the caliphate." The geographical distribution of the various religious communities posed problems for the creation of a cohesive national system of government. By all accounts, the New Deal programs eased the hardships of the Great Depression; however, the U.

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Love and Terror in the Middle East, 4th Edition

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The siege of Cawnpore ended in a massacre of the whole British garrison, women and children included -- to which the British retaliated with their own massacre later. There is no way to overstate the depth of this refugee burden. Oren addresses The Washington Institute\'s Special Policy Forum, March 9, 2007 Michael B. In the end, the final decision was made by a British general assisted by a director from the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. Canada's relationship with aboriginal people will continue to evolve, guided by a mutual desire to see aboriginal peoples share fully in the social and economic opportunities of Canadian society.

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Not Even My Name: A True Story

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Office of the White House, The National Security Strategy of the United States, September 2002,.http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html. After 1922 Egypt gained a parliament, while its dynastic ruler, a descendant of the Ottoman governor Muhammad Ali, was declared king. The clothing of the Middle East has often been used as a symbol of political and religious affiliations and represents a sartorial history that is equally complex and controversial.

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There Was and There Was Not: A Journey Through Hate and

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After Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, the United Nations (backed strongly by the US and UK) imposed harsh sanctions on Iraq that lasted for 10 years (1991-2001); the harsh restrictions on imports of everything, including access to key medicines, resulted in over a million deaths, more than half a million of which were women and children. Consider three examples: Choosing Iran's Leader. Jews bought land and started building up the Jewish community there. Concerned that France would block British access to the eastern Mediterranean and thereby threaten critical trade routes to India, the British navy collaborated with Ottoman authorities to evict French troops from Egypt.

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Howard Carter and the Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun

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The Jewish refugees were immediately accepted by the new State of Israel. The infamous 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement, the secret Franco-British-Russian pact that allocated regional zones of control, became the blueprint for today’s map, but Europeans had little interest in understanding the maze of Middle Eastern identities. People settled far from their ancestral homelands the Bible's translation into Greek, the word Diaspora was to refer to the population of Jews exiled from Israel in 587 BCE by the Babylonians, and from Judea in 70 CE by the Roman Empire.

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The Man Who Would Be King: The First American in Afghanistan

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Sudan, 1991: Osama bin Laden finds shelter in Sudan, under the protection of the Islamic government of Hassan al Tourabi, sets up headquarters for Al Qaeda in Khartoum and contributes to construction and agricultural projects Afghanistan, april 1992: mujahidin guerrillas led by general Ahmad Shah Masood/Masoud dislodge the communist regime from Kabul, but civil war erupts between his "Northern Alliance" and other warlords such as Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Afghanistan, 1993: mujahedin factions form a coalition and create a multi-ethnic government led by Burhanuddin Rabbani, but almost immediately internal fighting erupts among the various militias Britain, 1994: Osama bin Laden travels to London under a Saudi passport and establishes London as the political and financial headquarter of al-Quaeda organization (his international coalition of terrorists, the Jihad Committee, runs the Islamic Information Observatory Center and the Advisory and Reformation Body, both based in London), while his financial resources are administered by lawyers in Switzerland Pakistan, 1994: Pakistan helps the Taliban, Afghan fighters bred in the madrassas of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, launch an invasion of Kandahar in Afghanistan from Pakistan Afghanistan, late 1994: funded by wealthy Saudi families close to ultraconservative Wahhabism, the Taliban emerge as a Messianic movement with the mission to restore peace in Afghanistan, establish law and order, disarm the population, and impose sharia (Islamic law) Sudan, may 1996: under pressure from the US and Saudi Arabia, Sudan expels Osama bin Laden Afghanistan, september 1996: the Taliban militia (mainly ethnic Pushtun) dislodges the mujahedin government from Kabul and installs one of the most fundamentalistic Muslim governments in the world, while the remaining troops of Shah Masood retreat to the north and form the Northern Alliance Afghanistan, 1997: as they establish control over most of the country, the Taliban, led by the one-eyed cleric Mullah Omar, create a regime characterized by the massacre of ethnic minorities, by collaboration with drug traffickers (that turn Afghanistan into the largest market for heroin), public executions and amputations, a ban on women and girls going to school or having a job, restrictions on the access of women to health care, and the outlawing of television, film and popular music Afghanistan, 1997: Pakistan and Saudi Arabia recognize the Taleban government, but the rest of the world including the United Nations continues to recognize the government in exile of Rabbani that supports the multi-ethnic Northern Alliance in the north of the country led by Shah Masood Afghanistan, 1997: Iran and Uzbekistan lend military support to the Northern Alliance, largely drawn from Afghanistan's ethnic Tajiks and Hazaras Afghanistan, february 1998: Osama bin Laden announces the creation of the "International Islamic Front for Jihad Against the Jews and Crusaders", an international alliance of terrorist organizations, including Al Qaeda, the Egyptian Islamic Jihadand the Pakistan-based Harakat al-Ansar, and Muhammad Atif (aka Subhi Abu Sitta, aka Abu Hafs Al Masri) is named commander of their military operations Afghanistan, 1998: the Taliban overrun much of northern Afghanistan, pushing the Northern Alliance into the northeast Aghanistan, 1999: the population of Afghanistan is estimated at 18 million, down from 1990's 24 million, while millions live in exile in Pakistan and Iran Afghanistan, march 2001: the Taliban destroy two giant Buddhas, one of the greatest monuments in the world, despite an international outcry Afghanistan, september 2001: the military leader of the Northern Alliance, Ahmed Shah Masood/Mas'ud/ Massoud, is killed by Algerian suicide bombers Afghanistan, october 2001: in retaliation for Osama bin Laden's terrorism, the USA conducts a bombing campaign against the Taliban of Afghanistan, removes them from power, and hunts Al Qaeda fighters Pakistan, 2002: Iran expels Gulbuddin Hikmetyar who settles in Peshawar, northwestern Pakistan, where he becomes an ally of the Taliban Afghanistan, january 2003: The Taliban fight a battle with US troops, the first battle since the Taliban regrouped in Pakistan Afghanistan, 2005: More than 1,400 people are killed in Afghanistan, the worst toll since the USA ousted the Taliban Afghanistan, 2007: after Italy negotiates the release of a kidnapped Italian, abductions of foreigners by Taleban multiply leading to ransom payments and prisoner releases Afghanistan, 2008: about 2,200 civilians are killed in 2008, of which about 800 killed by NATO Pakistan, Feb 2010: Pakistani and USA agents arrest the military commander of the Aghani Taliban, Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar Afghanistan, jun 2010: More than 1,250 civilians are killed in Afghanistan in the first six months of 2010, 76% by the insurgents Afghanistan, sep 2011: Fighters of Sirajuddin Haqqani's Taliban supported by Pakistan's spy agency stage an attack on the USA embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan Russia, 1996: Boris Yeltsin orders the withdrawal of Russian troops from Chechnya, after tens of thousands of people died, and Chechnya is de facto independent Uzbekistan, february 1999; Juma Namangani's Islamic militia IMU stages tries to assassinate Uzbekistan's president Karimov, killing 16 people Uzbekistan, 1999: Tahir Yuldashev, leader of the Islamic Movement of Uzbeldstan (IMU) that tried to assassinate president Islam Karimov, flees to Afghanistan Kyrgyzstan, august 1999: 800 Uzbek and Tajik gunmen led by UMI leader Juma Namangani, invade southern Kyrgyzstan on their way to invade Uzbekistan Russia, september 1999: prime minister Vladimir Putin launches a military campaign to return Chechnya to Russia, Russian warplanes strike oil and gas facilities in Chechnya, Russian troops mobilize along the Chechen border and thousands of civilians flee the capital city Afghanistan, november 2001: Juma Namangani, leader of the Islamic militia IMU, is killed by an air strike in Afghanistan Russia, 2002: Suicide bombers kill 52 people in Grozny, the capital of Chechnya Russia, 2004: Chechen terrorists blow up two airplanes killing 89 people, blow up a bomb in a Moscow subway and take more than 1,000 hostages in a Beslan school and kill 335 Russia, 2004: Chechen terrorists bomb the Moscow underground, killing 39 people Russia, 2004: Chechen terrorists led Shamil Basayev take more than 1,000 hostages in a Beslan school and kill 335, mostly children Russia, august 2009: 20 people are killed by a suicide bomber in Nazran, the capital of Ingushetia Russia, november 2009: Islamic terrorists from Ingushetia bomb a train in Russia killing 28 people, the first deadly terrorist attack outside Chechnya since 2004 Russia, september 2010: A suicide bomber kills 17 people in Vladikavkaz, the capital of North Ossetia India, october 1947: the Maharajah of Kashmir decides to join India and not Pakistan, pending a plebiscite Pakistan, october 1947: following rioting by the Muslim majority in Kashmir, Pakistani troops attack India and occupy part of Kashmir India, 1957: despite opposition by its Muslim population, India annexes Kashmir Pakistan, Sep 1985: Haq Nawaz Jhangvi founds Sipah-e-Sahaba, a Wahabi organization that aims at turning Pakistan into a purely Sunni nation and stages attacks against Shiites Pakistan, Nov 1989: A bomb kills Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, a Palestinian, a co-founder of Hamas and Lashkar-e-Taiba, considered the "father of global jihad" and a mentor of Osama bin Laden, in Pakistan Pakistan, 1990: Shiite militants assassinate the founder of Sipah-e-Sahaba, Haq Nawaz Jhangvi India, march 1993: Bombs set by Islamic fundamentalists destroys the Bombay stock exchange and other buildings, killing 257 people Pakistan, 1993: Pakistan's secret services help Islamic fighters form the terrorist group Harkat-ul-Ansar, based in Kashmir Pakistan, october 1993: Islamic fundamentalists form Harakat al-Ansar, a militant group based in Pakistan whose mission is to liberate Kashmir from Indian occupation Pakistan, 1994: Pakistan helps the Taliban, Afghan fighters bred in the madrassas of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, launch an invasion of Kandahar in Afghanistan from Pakistan India, august-november 1994: Muslim separatists plant bombs in Kashmir, killing dozens India, july 1995: Islamic fundamentalists kidnap and later kill five western tourists i Kashmir (linked to Harakat al-Ansar, a militant group based in Pakistan that is led by Fazlur Rehman Khalil) Pakistan, 1996: Riaz Basra breaks away from Sipah-e-Sahaba and founds the Sunni Islamic movement Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, whose main target are Shiites Algeria, january 1961: former French officers led by general Raoul Salan form the Organisation de l'Armee Secrete (OAS) to fight Arabs in Algeria, killing 12,000 Arab civilians in one year Algeria, 1962: After the deaths of about 100,000 French and about 1,000,000 Algerians, Algeria is declared independent Western Sahara, 1973: El-Ouali leads a group of Sahrawi students to form the "Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro", or Polisario, fighting for independence from Spain Sudan, 1989: Hassan al-Turabi seizes power with a coup and becomes Sudan's Islamist philospher and dictator, intent on building a pure Islamic society Algeria, january 1992: The Algerian army cancels national elections won by the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) and seizes power, while Islamic radicals of the Arme` Islamique du Salut (AIS), the military wing of the FIS, begin a guerrilla campaign Algeria, 1993: A group of of Algerian "Afghans" (Islamic fighters who received their military training in Afghanistan) forms the Group Islamique Arme` (GIA) with the mission to exterminate all infidels (basically Jews and Christians) and begins targeting foreign nationals in Algeria, murdering two Frenchmen Sudan, 1993: Omar Hassan al-Bashir is appointed president, while Hassan al-Turabi remains the most powerful man in the country Algeria, 1994: chaos reigns as the Group Islamic Army (GIA), led by Tayeb al Afghani, an Afghan veteran, kills scores of foreigners and Algerian intellectuals in and around Algiers, while the Movement Islamic Army (MIA), also led by Afghan veterans, attacks military and government targets in the western and eastern regions of Algeria, while the Kataeb al Mout death squads, led by Afghan veteran) Sherif Gousmi (aka Abu Abdallah Ahmed), specialize in assassinations of government officials and several French citizens Libya, 1996: the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, a fundamentalist Islamic group, carries out a failed assassination attempt against Qaddafi Algeria, january 2003: 47 soldiers are killed in an ambush by Islamic terrorists, the worst carnage in six years Niger, 2008: Algerian terrorist Mokhtar Belmokhtar kidnaps Robert Fowler, a United Nations envoy Algeria, Jan 2013: Mokhtar Belmokhtar's Masked Brigade attacks a gas field in Algeria and takes 132 foreign workers hostage, 37 of which are killed (together with 29 terrorists) when the Algerian army tries to rescue them Turkey, 1995: the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), led by Abdullah Ocalan, unleashes a terrorist campaign in Turkey Turkey, 1999: Abdullah Ocalan renounces violence, after a 15-year war that has claimed the lives of 27,000 Kurdish rebels, thousands of turkish soldiers, hundreds of Turkish civilians and unknown numbers of Kurdish civilians Turkey, september 2007: Following the killing of a Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) leader, Kurdish separatists kill 12 people in Turkey Malaysia, 1983: the Indonesian cleric Abu Bakar Bashir founds Jemaah Islamiyah, a clandestine organization whose goal is the establishment of a pan-Islamic state all over Southeast Asia.

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